Posts Tagged ‘enzymes in meat tenderizer’

Zhang Lijun

torsdag, augusti 3rd, 2017

Zhang Lijun (simplified Chinese: 张力军; traditional Chinese: 張力軍; pinyin: Zhāng Lìjūn; born July 1952) is a former Chinese politician who served as vice-minister of Environmental Protection from March 2008 to February 2013. He was placed under investigation by the Communist Party’s anti-corruption agency in late July 2015. He was removed from membership of China’s top political advisory body, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, in the following month.

Zhang was born in Huadian County, Jilin province, in July 1952. During the Down to the Countryside Movement, he performed manual labour in Panshi County as a sent-down youth. After graduating from Northeastern Institute of Technology (now Northeastern University) in December 1975, he was assigned to a factory in Jilin city as a technician and then deputy director enzymes in meat tenderizer.

After the Cultural Revolution, Zhang became deputy director of Jilin Municipal Planning Committee between May 1978 and June 1984. Then he was transferred to Shulan County and successively served as deputy county governor runners drink bottle, deputy party chief, and county governor Purple Bandage Dress. He became director and party group secretary of Jilin Provincial Environmental Protection Agency in July 1989, and served until January 1993, when he was appointed president of China Environment News.

From February 1997 towards, he assumed various posts in the Ministry of Environmental Protection’s Department of Planning and Finance and Pollution Control Office, and over a period of 11 years worked his way up to the position of vice-minister. He retired in 2013 after having reached the customary retirement age for vice-minister level officials of 60.

Zhang was placed under investigation for ”serious violations of laws and regulations” by the Communist Party’s disciplinary body in late July 2015, and a month later he was removed from membership of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Zhang was the first senior official (or ”green tiger”, Chinese: 环保首虎) in the environmental protection system to be investigated in President Xi Jinping’s ongoing anti-corruption battle after he took power in the 18th CPC National Congress. He was expelled from the Communist Party on December 31, 2015.

On November 9, 2016, Zhang was sentenced for 4 year in prison.

Eugene Parks Wilkinson

torsdag, oktober 13th, 2016

Eugene Parks ”Dennis” Wilkinson (August 10, 1918 – July 11, 2013) was a United States Naval officer who was selected for three historic command assignments. The first, in 1954, was as the first Commanding Officer of the USS Nautilus, the world’s first nuclear submarine. The second was in 1961, where Admiral Rickover selected him to serve as the first Commanding Officer of the USS Long Beach, America’s first nuclear surface ship. The third was in 1980 when he was chosen as the first President and CEO of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) from which he retired in 1984.

Wilkinson, born in August 1918 in Long Beach, California, the son of Dennis William and Daisy Parks Wilkinson. He attended Holtville, California, High School and San Diego State College. He graduated from the latter in 1938 with a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in chemistry. He taught chemistry there for a year. He also filled in and taught a course in mathematics. During this year he attended the University of Southern California. The next year he had a teaching fellowship in chemistry at USC. During those two years he completed all of the course work for a doctor’s degree but never did a thesis or received any graduate degree. Commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve on 12 December 1940, he was transferred to the regular U.S. Navy on 28 August 1946.

Wilkinson’s commissioned service began in the heavy cruiser USS Louisville (CA-28), in which he had duty in the engineering department until December 1941. He was detached in San Francisco, with orders to the Submarine School, New London, Connecticut, for instruction in submarines. After completing the course in March 1942, he served in the engineering department of the submarine USS R-10 in April and May, after which he was ordered to the submarine USS Blackfish (SS-221). After the commissioning of that boat in July, he served on board for one year, making four war patrols. He had commissary, engineering; and electrical duties. During his time in the crew the submarine participated in the North African operation (Algeria-Morocco landings).

From June 1943 to October 1944 Wilkinson was in the crew of the submarine USS Darter (SS-227) which participated in four war patrols, including the Truk attack and the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Wilkinson was awarded the Silver Star for his service aboard the Darter. Officially detached from the Darter in November 1944, following her loss the previous month, he returned to the United States. From January to March 1945 he was an instructor at the Submarine School, New London, Connecticut. He next served as executive officer and navigator of the submarine USS Menhaden (SS-377) from March to October 1945 and had similar duty on board the submarine USS Raton (SS-270). Upon his transfer from the Naval Reserve to the U.S. Navy, he was ordered to the General Line School, Newport, Rhode Island, where he completed the assigned course in May 1947.

From June 1947 until April 1948, Wilkinson was executive officer and navigator of the USS Cusk (SSG-348). From April 1948 to April 1950, he completed assignments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago as an associate engineer, and at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area, as chief of the operations branch and Bureau of Ships representative. In May 1950 he assumed command of the submarine USS Volador (SS-490) in which he participated in action in the Korean area from 12 August to 2 November 1951. From January to May 1952 he fitted out the submarine USS Wahoo (SS-565) and on her commissioning on 10 May of that year became her first commanding officer.

In February 1952 Wilkinson had temporary duty for one month as commanding officer of the submarine USS Sea Robin (SS-407). He was detached from the Wahoo in June 1953. He then carried out a series of temporary assignments by way of preparation for becoming prospective commanding officer of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571), the world’s first nuclear-powered submarine. He took command of the ship upon her commissioning on 30 September 1954 and held that billet until relieved in June 1957. During his three-year tour aboard the Nautilus, he presided over pre-commissioning and post-commissioning trials of the submarine. These trials established the capabilities of the nuclear-powered submarine and were used in the development of early nuclear-powered submarine tactics. Nautilus successfully attacked surface ships without being detected and evaded most pursuers.

At 1100 on January 17, 1955, after getting underway, CDR Wilkinson signaled ”Underway on Nuclear Power.” This historic message ushered in the nuclear age for the United States Navy, as well as the world. CDR Wilkinson was the first commanding officer in a nuclear fleet that would eventually cover most of the aircraft carriers, several cruisers, and the entire submarine fleet for the United States Navy.

After spending the following academic year as a student at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, Wilkinson served as Commander Submarine Division 102 for a year and had brief temporary duty as commanding officer of the Nautilus. In September 1961 he became the initial commanding officer of the guided missile cruiser USS Long Beach (CGN-9), the U.S. Navy’s first nuclear-powered surface ship. After completion of that command, he reported on 1 November 1963 as Director of the Submarine Warfare Division (OP-31), in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. While in that billet he was promoted to the rank of rear admiral.

On 23 November 1966, he assumed duties as Chief of Staff for the U.S. Forces in Japan. After earning the Distinguished Service Medal for his service in Japan, Admiral Wilkinson assumed command of Submarine Flotilla Two on 6 June 1969. He was promoted to vice admiral upon becoming Commander of the Atlantic Fleet Submarine Force on 12 February 1970. He had additional duty as Submarine Operations Advisor for Polaris Operations, Atlantic Command and Supreme Allied Command Atlantic, Commander Submarines Allied Command, and Commander Submarine Force Western Atlantic. His final billet on active duty, from 1972 to 1974, was as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Submarine Warfare), OP-02, on the staff of the Chief of Naval Operations.

He retired with the rank of Vice Admiral, having commanded the Submarine Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet from 1970 to 1972 and served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Submarine Warfare from 1972 to 1974.

He died on July 11, 2013.

During his noteworthy naval career, Admiral Wilkinson earned:

After retiring from the Navy Admiral Wilkinson received the following awards:

First Commanding Officer of USS NAUTILUS (SSN 571) 50th Anniversary of NAUTILUS’ First Underway on Nuclear Power Submarine Force Museum Monday, January 17, 2005
Wilkinson, Eugene P., Stillwell, Paul, (interviewer). . Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 2006. OCLC OCLC&nbsp football championship shirt designs;
Stillwell, Paul, ed. 2007.

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Willy Voet

lördag, oktober 8th, 2016

Willy Voet, né le à Malines, est l’ancien soigneur belge des équipes cyclistes Flandria, RMO, et Festina.

Willy Voet naît le à Malines. Son père est conducteur de train à la SNCB, et sa mère rempaille des chaises au domicile familial. Son père est également footballeur semi-professionnel et joue au poste d’arrière-droit au FC Malines. À la fin de sa carrière, il fait du vélo en vétéran. À 15 ans, Willy Voet commence le cyclisme à son tour au Dijlespurters de Malines. Il remporte au total une vingtaine de courses. En juniors, il côtoie Eddy Merckx, Herman Van Springel, Walter Godefroot.

Il devient coureur amateur en 1962, à 18 ans, et le reste jusqu’à 23 ans. Il consomme ses premières amphétamines cette année-là, initié par un ami et coéquipier. Il y a ensuite fréquemment recours. Le père de Willy Voet devient progressivement plus ambitieux pour son fils, et plus exigeant. Lors de sa deuxième année, Willy Voet bénéficie des soins d’un masseur ayant été coureur professionnel qui l’initie à d’autres méthodes de dopage : des solutions d’hormones mâles à boire durant la semaine précédant la course. Après avoir quitté l’école à 18 ans plastic water bottles, Willy Voet est pompiste dans un garage de Malines pendant deux ans. Il effectue ensuite son service militaire en Allemagne à Siegen (Rhénanie-du-Nord-Westphalie), où il est chauffeur du colonel. À son retour, il est porteur de journaux. Ce métier lui permet de s’entraîner l’après-midi, après avoir effectué sa tournée à vélo le matin. Il arrête ce travail au bout de deux ans, en même temps que sa carrière de coureur amateur.

Devenu chauffeur d’autocar, Willy Voet croise six ans plus tard, en 1972, Jos Deschoenmaecker et Edward Janssens, deux coureurs professionnels avec lesquels il a couru chez les amateurs. Ils lui proposent de les accompagner le week-end suivant au Grand Prix de Fourmies. Willy Voet suit ensuite Janssens sur d’autres courses. Il apporte son aide au staff de son équipe, Magniflex, et le masse parfois. À la fin de l’année 1976, il s’inscrit au BLOSO à Gand pour y suivre une formation de 18 mois afin de devenir masseur. Après avoir travaillé au noir à la pige pour diverses équipes, il est recruté en 1979 par l’équipe Flandria-Ça-va-seul, dirigée par Jean de Gribaldy, qu’il a connu lorsqu’il dirigeait Magniflex. Il est ensuite employé par les équipes Marc Zeepcentrale en 1980, Daf Truck en 1981, puis l’équipe Sem-France-Loire de Jean de Gribaldy en 1982 et 1983 leak proof insulated water bottle.

En 1989, il est recruté par l’équipe R.M.O.. Il y reste jusqu’à sa disparition à la fin de l’année 1992. Il rejoint ensuite l’équipe Festina en compagnie d’autres membres de RMO, dont le directeur sportif Bruno Roussel, et le coureur Pascal Lino, par l’entremise duquel il est recruté.

Willy Voet travaille également occasionnellement avec des équipes nationales. En 1982, il fait ainsi partie du staff de l’équipe de Belgique aux championnats du monde sur route. Il travaille avec l’équipe d’Irlande aux championnats du monde de 1980 et 1983. De 1994 à 1997, il accompagne l’équipe de France aux championnats du monde sur route.

Il est impliqué dans l’affaire Festina en 1998. À trois jours du départ du Tour, le 8 juillet, à 5 h 40 du matin, au détour d’une petite route de Dronckaert à la frontière franco-belge, Willy Voet est interpellé au volant de sa Fiat aux couleurs de Festina par des douaniers. Ce qui devait être un contrôle de routine aboutit à la fouille de la voiture : dans le coffre, les douaniers mettent la main sur des sacs isothermiques contenant plus de quatre cent flacons de produits dopants et stupéfiants (235 ampoules d’EPO, 120 capsules d’amphétamines, 82 solutions d’hormones de croissance, 60 flacons de testostérone, des corticoïdes et des amphétamines). Une rumeur circulant dans les caravanes du Tour veut que Willy Voet ait été dénoncé « aux services douaniers par le directeur sportif d’une équipe concurrente, inquiet de la suprématie grandissante des Festina ».

Placé en garde à vue, Willy Voet avoue trois jours plus tard. Une information judiciaire est ouverte pour importation en contrebande et circulation irrégulière de marchandises prohibées. Le 17 juillet, Bruno Roussel, directeur sportif de Festina, déclare par l’intermédiaire de son avocat : « Oui, il existe un système de dopage organisé au sein de l’équipe ». Jean-Marie Leblanc, le directeur du Tour, décide alors d’exclure Festina de la compétition le jour même, à 23 heures.

Willy Voet est mis en examen par le juge lillois Patrick Keil et écroué deux semaines. Le 22 décembre 2000, le tribunal correctionnel de Lille le condamnne à 10 mois d’emprisonnement assorti du sursis et 30 000 francs d’amende pour avoir transporté des produits dopants.

Ce que dénonce Willy Voet, notamment dans son best-seller Massacre à la chaîne, révélations sur 30 ans de tricheries, c’est un dopage institutionnel, c’est-à-dire totalement intégré au monde du cyclisme, et non des pratiques ponctuelles et circonscrites au seul coureur cycliste: l’entourage participe à l’organisation empirique et scientifique du dopage.
« Les années 80 furent beaucoup plus agréables. Tout le monde faisait pareil, ça marchait aux amphétamines et aux corticoïdes. Dans les années 90, il y a eu beaucoup plus d’argent en jeu et l’EPO a fait son entrée. » déclare-t-il.

Dix ans après son arrestation dans l’affaire Festina, Willy Voet prétend que rien n’a changé dans le cyclisme, se basant notamment sur les contrôles positifs à l’EPO de Riccardo Ricco, Leonardo Piepoli, Stefan Schumacher et Bernhard Kohl, ainsi que sur la présence à des postes de directeurs dans des équipes cyclistes d’anciens dopés, comme Bjarne Riis et Kim Andersen enzymes in meat tenderizer.
Questionné en 2008 sur une éventuelle disparition du dopage dix ans après l’affaire Festina, il répond : « Quand on voit l’allure à laquelle roulent les coureurs… Ça va aussi vite qu’avant, voire plus vite. Je ne vois pas comment les choses auraient pu changer. Gagner le Tour à l’eau claire, ça me paraît difficile. Mais pour moi, ce n’est pas grave. C’est toujours le meilleur qui gagne. ».


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