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Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute

onsdag, oktober 11th, 2017

The Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute BDRI is a research and educational centre dedicated to the understanding and conservation of cetaceans and the marine environment in which they live. The Institute’s BDRI centre was founded by the biologist Bruno Díaz López in Sardinia, Italy in 2005. However, since 2014 we have opened a new facility in our original location in Galicia, NW coast of Spain. This transformation has considerably improved our ability to care for and study marine mammals, providing a collaborative work environment for staff, students and volunteers from all over the world. Our research programs have helped us to understand the threats facing the dolphins and to develop strategies to manage these threats.

BDRI concentrates its efforts on research into dolphins because they are predators at the top of their food chain, so their well-being provides an excellent indication of the health of the entire ecosystem on which they, and humans, depend. Large, charismatic mammals underwater phone pouch, from elephants and pandas to whales and dolphins, also command tremendous public interest and are consequently an excellent way of generating public awareness of, and concern about, wider environmental issues. Whales and dolphins around the world are under threat from Marine pollution, over-fishing, getting entangled in nets, whaling and uncontrolled tourism.

BDRI members seek to contribute to the understanding and conservation of dolphins, expand the public’s knowledge and concern for our marine environment, and add to the knowledge base of bottlenose dolphins through publications of collected and analysed field data. Using study techniques that neither harm nor seriously disturb the animals, BDRI’s researchers are engaged in the conduction of a long term study about the ecology and behaviour of a bottlenose dolphin population, as well as collecting detailed information about their environment.

Bottlenose dolphins are protected by European law, but in order to develop effective protection guidelines, education and research is necessary to find out much more about the dolphins and the pressures they face. The BDRI has educational and research programmes aimed at providing extra support for scientists early in their careers, science students, local students and scientists from developing countries, including training opportunities in the field, grants, and online and field courses.

Cetacean populations are affected by man’s use of coastal waters, particularly by fisheries activities and habitat modification. A science-based response to the conservation problems created by interactions between human activities and dolphins depends critically on accurate knowledge of the impacts caused by the interactions. By increasing our knowledge about dolphins and their environment, BDRI researchers will be in a strong position to protect the animals from these and other threats caused by humans. Using study techniques that neither harm nor seriously disturb the animals, BDRI researchers are engaged in the conduction of a long term study about the ecology and behaviour of a bottlenose dolphin populations in different study areas, as well as collecting detailed information about their environment.

BDRI research projects provide scientific data to assist environmental agencies in managing and conserving marine natural resources and to obtain fundamental knowledge about this behaviourally flexible and cosmopolitan species. Our programs are conducted under a Research Permit issued by the Department of Environment of the Galician Government as part of our cooperation with the national networking for the study of marine mammals (CEMMA). Additional studies by the BDRI have also been conducted in Italy, Spain and Abu Dhabi to date.

BDRI researchers address a wide range of questions to form a multi-dimensional picture of the marine mammals behaviour and ecology and its relationship to the rest of the planet, including human society. The BDRI research has a multidisciplinary approach where we currently focus on four main research projects:

– Cetacean distribution along Galician coast: Current studies by the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute BDRI research team principally focus on the cetacean species frequenting the inshore waters of the outer Arousa Firth, however, a new area like Galician coastal waters (north-west Spain) offers us to also take on new projects and a more diverse range of issues and species. These waters are characterized by high biodiversity and productive fisheries, supported by nutrient input due to upwelling. Twenty species of cetaceans have been recorded in Galician waters, of which the most abundant appear to be short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. Other species present in the area include harbour porpoises, Risso’s dolphins and long-finned pilot whale. Conservation issues for cetaceans in Galician waters include interactions with fisheries, which may be a significant cause of mortality, overfishing, and oil spills. Hence, the information collected will inform conservation plans by identifying coastal areas of high importance to cetaceans. Wild bottlenose dolphins and humans frequenting the same small areas makes boat interaction more or less inevitable. BDRI researchers provided quantified data about bottlenose dolphin diving behaviour in the presence and absence of boats in Galicia. The data reported by BDRI researchers could be used to implement precautionary management proposals that take into account the potential effects of boat presence on dolphins.

– Behavioural ecology of dolphins and impact of human activities on their lives: Much of the research work is based upon repeat observations of individually-recognisable dolphins, providing data for a range of long-term and ongoing studies on the abundance, site fidelity, home range, social structure and behaviour of this population. The study of dolphins social structures defines an important class of ecological relationships between individuals and their nearby conspecifics. Common bottlenose dolphins live in fission–fusion societies within which individuals associate in small groups that change in composition, often on a daily or hourly basis. Fission–fusion societies limit the effect of within-unit competition through unit splits during periods of high competition, and they enhance cooperative effects through unit cohesion when the ecological costs of aggregating are low or benefits of sociality are high. Human activities can influence the distribution of food resources, which may promote the evolution of social organizations as a response to fluctuations in the costs of feeding competition. Therefore, fission–fusion societies present a good opportunity to examine the costs and benefits of association in dolphin populations affected by human use of coastal waters, especially by fisheries activities and habitat modification.

Individual-based studies focusing explicitly the variability of social unit structure in relation to anthropogenic factors are few. In this project, BDRI researchers will study the patterns of association of different populations of bottlenose dolphins (in Italy and Spain) and will describe the way in which their association behaviour is related to the way they respond to food patches created by human activities. BDRI researchers studied interactions between dolphins and gillnets along the north-eastern coast of Sardinia (Italy). Although dolphins benefit from taking fish entangled in gillnets, the association with gillnets is harmful because it exposes dolphins to additional risk. An observed annual estimate of the number of dolphins caught in gillnets was 3.54%. The extent of the estimated by-catch is worrisome in terms of the ability of bottlenose dolphins off Sardinia to sustain such an annual loss. The higher annual numbers of immature dolphins than adults dolphins caught in gillnets was related with a lack of experience together with and the tendency of immatures to play and/or to spend a lot of time scouting.

BDRI’s researchers have also examined the effects of aquaculture on marine fauna in general, and more specifically, the impacts of aquaculture on dolphins in different marine fin fish farms off the coast of Sardinia, Italy. One of the objectives of these studies was to determine the variables that influence the presence and abundance of dolphins in the fish farms area.

Marine aquaculture and, in particular intensive fish farming, have shown a large expansion in most Mediterranean countries over the last ten years. To curb predation, many marine fish farms employ control methods which exclude, harass or remove predators. One such method, predator netting, creates a physical barrier that protects farmed fish from attacks by airborne and underwater predators. The incidental capture of marine mammals by commercial fisheries is often a controversial and emotive issue. A potential impact on marine mammals as a result of aquaculture interaction is death or injury through entanglement in gear. BDRI researchers carried out the first attempt in the Mediterranean basin to obtain information on encounter rate, group size and incidental capture of bottlenose dolphins in a marine fish farm. The regular occurrence of some dolphins suggests individual preferences for the fish farm area. The incidental bottlenose dolphin capture observed in large, loose predator nets is cause for concern, as it is questionable whether or not the bottlenose dolphins in the area can sustain incidental capture of this magnitude. The information gained from this study showed the necessity for further regulations to be established, both in the use of predator nets and management of marine fish farms.

Assessing the consequences of fisheries and habitat modification with relatively obvious effects on marine predators can be difficult. BDRI researchers were the first to show how coastal fisheries and aquaculture are not only directly affecting marine predators but could also indirectly affect their social structure and behaviour. BDRI researchers suggest that the main management issues raised by their studies relates to the dolphins’ habitat. The feeding opportunities for dolphins that are created by human activities have become part of their ”way of life”, part of their habitat requirements. When top predators display complex social responses to activities not directed at them, the task of studying all possible effects in the food chain can become even more challenging. Further work should focus on elucidating how human activities induce social and spatial changes in marine top predators.

BDRI researchers observed that the use of pingers reduces dolphin mortality due to bycatch on gillnets. Definite proof that acoustic devices have a long-term effectiveness has not been found. The Dinner Bell and Habituation factors must be taken into consideration to test in future studies.

Bottlenose dolphins living around coastal regions have received much attention due to their increased vulnerability of inhabiting areas where marine traffic is concentrated. Marine traffic has previously been observed to elicit responses in cetacean behaviours, but the cause and effects of these interactions has yet to be fully understood. BDRI’s current study area of Aranci Bay, Sardinia, provides a unique insight into an area where the interactions of bottlenose dolphins and vessels remains largely unchecked. Our studies showed that the dolphins were surfacing less regularly in the presence of vessels and this response was further enhanced during vessel approaches. Moreover, by examining the influence of different types of vessel it was evident that the dolphins elicited a stronger response to tourist than fisheries vessels. The behaviour vessels display around the dolphins as well as speed, engine type and distance of approach were all factors that needed to be taken into consideration when analysing the changes observed. Research is contributing to a wider management scheme to ensure that marine traffic is monitored effectively when bottlenose dolphins are present.

– Dolphins communication: Bioacoustics research provides important insights into animal behavior water carriers for runners. Dolphins (family: Delphinidae) are an extremely vocal mammalian family and vocal communication plays an important role in mediating social interactions. Most BDRI studies of delphinid vocalizations have concentrated on bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (in the Mediterranean, Italy, and in the Atlantic Ocean, Spain) and T. aduncus (in the Persian Gulf, Abu Dhabi, UAE). Until recently, communication behaviour had a limited role in conservation, being restricted to enhancing captive breeding programs or use in species counts. However, knowledge of how individuals within a population communicate can generate information ranging from measures of habitat use, social relevance, geographical variation, cultural transmission, etc., that can be applied to conservation. Marine mammals use sound for activities essential to survival and reproduction 32 ounce glass water bottle. Bottlenose dolphins are extremely vocal mammalian species, and vocal communication plays an important role in mediating social interactions. Amid the abundant literature pertaining to vocalizations of bottlenose dolphins, very little is known about the vocal repertoire of Mediterranean wild bottlenose dolphins. BDRI bioacoustical studies carried out year round from 2005 represent the first attempt to obtain information on the repertoire and production patterns of bottlenose dolphins resident in an area characterized by important interaction with human activities (tourism, aquaculture and coastal fisheries). Many vocal signals were strongly implicated in social and feeding interactions. Although many of these vocalizations have been previously described in the literature, their association with specific behaviours linked with human activities provides additional contextual information about their potential use as communication signals. One of BDRI’s most recent projects shows that the number of whistles recorded in a group increased significantly as the number of mother-calf pairs increased, confirming that whistles may be used as contact calls. These studies use benign techniques to demonstrate the great diversity of communication signals emitted and indicate a functional role of these vocalizations during the observed behaviours. Cetaceans (dolphins, whales and porpoises) are often faced with the challenge of hearing strange sounds in environments with noise from both natural and anthropogenic sources. BDRI researchers have documented that human-introduced noise induces behavioural reactions in bottlenose dolphins. In addition noise pollution is being considered as a cause of displacement of cetaceans from preferred habitats. Short-term noise pollution may not create significant problems. Repeated or long-term noise pollution, however, can cause stress and debilitation and may be related to dolphin mortality. Related scientific publications:

– Dolphins in the Persian Gulf: At least ten species of cetacean have been identified in the Persian Gulf, but most of these are considered vagrant or seasonal visitor. Only two species of dolphin, the Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) and the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) are thought to be common residents of the Gulf. The finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocaenoides) is thought to be an uncommon resident.

The conservation status of these species in Abu-Dhabi waters is totally unknown running belts australia, largely because of the lack of research on either species. The world conservation status of these species is Data Deficient, that is, there is insufficient information on which to make an assessment. This deficiency hampers conservation and management efforts and our ability to assess the impact of human activities on local populations of this species.

BDRI researchers participate in cooperation with the Environmental Agency of Abu Dhabi since 2014, for the first time in Abu Dhabi waters, in a research project in order to obtain accurate data on population estimate, distribution, potential threats and residence patterns of dolphin species observed in coastal waters of Abu-Dhabi (UAE). The final purpose of this project is to inform and improve the design of conservation and management interventions towards these species in Abu-Dhabi waters.

As a marine science research team, BDRI researchers have witnessed first hand the effects global warming and climate change have on our planet. Every year new tropical species are catalogued in north Sardinia as having arrived from tropical waters as an effect of global warming, and entire ecosystems are being affected. BDRI researchers are committed to the implementation of proactive measures to help protect and sustain the local and global environment for future generations. The BDRI aims to achieve the objective of improved environmental performance through pollution prevention and continuous improvement. All BDRI members, workers and volunteers are expected to conduct their work in a manner compatible with the BDRI’s Responsible Travel policy and objectives.

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Emder Heringsfischerei

söndag, februari 12th, 2017

Die Emder Heringsfischerei AG war eine Loggerfischerei. Sie wurde 1872 gegründet, wurde 1969 in das Bremerhavener Handelsregister eingetragen hydration backpack running, 1975 liquidiert und 1976 im Bremerhavener Handelsregister gelöscht.

Im Rahmen einer Tagung des Deutschen Fischereivereins in Emden wurden die Ergebnisse der holländischen Loggerfischerei vorgetragen und diskutiert. Eine der Folgen war die Gründung der Emder Heringsfischerei AG reading football shirt, mit dem Ziel, den Heringsfang wieder in Emden heimisch zu machen. Die von den Holländern verwendeten Logger wurden als Schiffstyp vorgesehen ebenso wie die aus Baumwolle bestehenden getaanten Treibnetze der Holländer. Daher wurden die notwendigen Materialien, die Logger,Netze und ein Teil der Loggerbesatzungen aus Holland übernommen. Das notwendige Wassergrundstück erhielt die Gesellschaft von der Stadt Emden gegen Erbpacht, hier wurden die Gebäude zur Verarbeitung, die Netzschuppen und eine Pier errichtet.1872 liefen sechs hölzerne Segellogger zum Fang aus, weitere sechs wurden bestellt. In wird berichtet, dass das erste Fangschiff 113 Tonnen Heringe fing.

Bei der Gründung der Heringsfischerei Dollart hatte sich die Emder Heringsfischerei 1899 finanziell stark beteiligt und war auch personell erheblich engagiert. Beide Gesellschaften wurden in einer Betriebsgemeinschaft eingebracht. Auch bei der 1904 gegründeten Großer Kurfürst Heringsfischerei wurde so verfahren. Die Betriebsgemeinschaft wurde von einem Zentralvorstand geleitet.

Nach der Einführung der Dampflogger – es waren eigentlich Segellogger mit Hilfsdampfantrieb- wurden bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg sieben Dampflogger beschafft. Ein wichtiger Vorteil war der mit Steinkohle beheizte Dampfkessel, der die Dampfmaschine zum Antrieb des Propellers und der Winde (Dampfspill) beim Einholen der riesigen bis 3,5 km langen als Fleete bezeichneten Netze mit Dampf versorgte. Insgesamt besaß die Emder Heringsfischerei beim Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges insgesamt 32 Logger.

Als nach dem Krieg die ersten Dampflogger 1919 wieder zum Heringsfang ausfuhren, waren die meisten hölzernen Segellogger verkauft. Die restlichen 9 Segellogger konnten aufgrund fehlender Mannschaften erst später besetzt werden und zum Fang ausfahren. Wie schon vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg fiel es der Gesellschaft schwer, Dividenden zu erwirtschaften. Trotzdem wurden 1931 gemeinsam mit den anderen Heringsfischerei-Gesellschaften aus Emden die Heringslogger der in Konkurs gegangenen Glückstädter Heringsfischerei übernommen. Acht neu gebaute Motorlogger konnten um 1930 mit Hilfe des Staates aus dem Neubauprogramm speziell für Logger erworben werden. Zu Beginn des Zweiten Weltkrieges verzeichnete die Schiffsliste 13 Motorlogger, 8 Dampflogger und 2 Motorschiffe mit isolierten Laderäumen, die für den Frischfischfang geeignet waren. Zwei Schiffe befanden sich im Bau und wurden noch im Bau für die Belange der Kriegsmarine geändert.

Noch 1945 fuhren die ersten Logger wieder zum Fang aus, obwohl Gebäude und Einrichtungen durch Bombenangriffe stark zerstört wurden. Neue Logger kamen ab 1950 in die bestehende Flotte, es waren hochmotorisierte kombinierte Logger, die sowohl mit dem Treibnetz als auch mit dem Schleppnetz fischen konnten. Daher waren auch die Laderäume isoliert und wurden beim Frischfischfang vom Januar bis Mai mit Eis gekühlt. Die Mitte der 1950er Jahre übernommenen Motorlogger hatten um 800 PS und Platz für 1400 Kantjes running belts australia. Ab 1957 wurde auch mit der Leerer Heringsfischerei eng zusammengearbeitet.

Trotzdem wurde es ab Mitte der fünfziger Jahre für die Gesellschaft immer schwieriger, in den traditionellen Fahrtgebieten ergiebige Fanggründe zu finden. Die Logger kamen immer häufiger nur mit teilgefüllten Laderäumen zurück. So wurden gemeinsam mit den anderen Gesellschaften und staatlichen Stellen neue weiter entfernte Fanggründe vor Grönland und Neufundland aufgesucht. Die dadurch erheblich verlängerten Anreisen führten jedoch dazu, dass die Schiffe im Fanggebiet blieben und die Fische und Ausrüstung mit Frachtern transportiert werden mussten. Die Verluste in diesem Zeitraum führten dazu, dass die Kredite nicht mehr bedient werden konnten und endeten 1968 im Verkauf der Betriebsgrundstücke. Auch die Übertragung der Emder Heringsfischereien und der Reederei Schulte & Bruns in das Land Bremen (in das Bremerhavener Handelsregister) ergab nur einen kurzen Aufschub, denn die als Gegenleistung vom Land Bremen dafür gewährten Kredite änderten nichts an der Strukturkrise. 1976 wurde die Emder Heringsfischerei im Bremerhavener Handelsregister gelöscht.

Sardegna (trasporto aereo)

fredag, oktober 7th, 2016

Gli aeroporti, tutti recentemente rinnovati, in ordine di traffico sono quelli di Cagliari-Elmas (Mario Mameli), Olbia-Costa Smeralda (sede logistica di Meridiana) ed Alghero-Fertilia (Riviera del Corallo); presso quest’ultimo era presente fino a pochi anni fa la scuola di volo per i piloti dell’Alitalia. Durante il periodo estivo alcuni collegamenti avvenivano anche con Tortolì-Arbatax, ora chiuso, mentre da svariati anni si ipotizza l’apertura al traffico commerciale dell’Aeroporto di Oristano-Fenosu. Nel panorama militare conserva inoltre una discreta importanza strategica l’aeroporto NATO di Cagliari-Decimomannu (Giovanni Farina). In Sardegna sono presenti anche varie aviosuperfici usate per voli turistici e sportivi, come quella di Castiadas (dove è ospitata anche una scuola di paracadutismo) e quella di Dorgali.

Dati ufficiali assaeroporti anno 2007

Negli ultimi 15 anni la Regione Sardegna ha optato per l’applicazione della continuità territoriale, in particolare sui collegamenti fra i tre aeroporti principali, Alghero, Cagliari ed Olbia, verso Milano e Roma. Questa pratica, che garantisce alle compagnie l’assegnazione in esclusiva delle linee in seguito ad appalto pubblico, ha da un lato garantito numerosi benefici ai residenti e nativi della Sardegna, come:

ma anche diversi svantaggi, sia per i residenti che per i non residenti:

Nella primavera del 2006 running belts australia, con la nuova gara per l’assegnazione delle rotte, con contributi (Bologna, Verona, Torino, Napoli, Palermo e Firenze) e non (Roma e Milano) la procedura di assegnazione delle rotte si è rivelata molto burocratica e macchinosa, portando a diversi ricorsi amministrativi ed a rinunce eccellenti ad operare nell’isola, come quella della compagnia di bandiera. Alitalia infatti, per via della ristrutturazione cui è soggetta, ha dimenticato di presentare un’offerta per la gara d’appalto, cancellando così una delle rotte storiche verso Roma, che successivamente ha deciso di operare in Code-share con Meridiana. Il Presidente Renato Soru ha quindi proposto che Alitalia continuasse ad operare con dei nuovi collegamenti diretti Cagliari-New York.

Così a fine gara d’appalto:

Nell’estate del 2006 alcuni inconvenienti tecnici ai velivoli Air One si sono estesi a catena a tutti i collegamenti della compagnia youth sports uniforms, comportando ingenti ritardi, cancellazioni e disagi per i passeggeri diretti in Sardegna. Air One infatti non è stata capace di garantire il numero di voli programmato che le era stato assegnato in regime di continuità territoriale, ed essendo l’unica autorizzata ad operare su tali rotte i passeggeri si sono ritrovati senza alternative per raggiungere l’isola.

Per i voli interni all’Isola, spesso effettuati da compagnie private o locali durante tutto l’anno, Cagliari era collegata giornalmente con Olbia da Meridiana e il volo durava in media mezz’ora mentre la durata dei voli per il continente è di circa un’ora.

Nel 2015 Ryanair ha annunciato l’addio alla Sardegna ed il conseguente taglio di molte rotte da Cagliari e Alghero.


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