Posts Tagged ‘steel water glass’

Bangladeschische Davis-Cup-Mannschaft

lördag, augusti 12th, 2017

Die bangladeschische Davis-Cup-Mannschaft ist die Tennisnationalmannschaft Bangladeschs lemon squeeze urban.

1986 nahm Bangladesch erstmals am Davis Cup teil. Das beste Resultat erzielte die Mannschaft 1989 steel water glass, als sie ins Halbfinale in der Asien/Ozeanien-Gruppenzone II einziehen konnte. Bester Spieler ist Sree-Amol Roy mit 36 Siegen bei insgesamt 40 Teilnahmen glass water bottle 1 liter. Er ist damit gleichzeitig Rekordspieler seines Landes.

Folgende Spieler traten im Davis Cup 2012 an:

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Can’t Be Tamed

onsdag, januari 25th, 2017

Can’t Be Tamed es el tercer álbum de estudio de la cantante estadounidense Miley Cyrus. Fue lanzado el 21 de junio de 2010 por Hollywood Records. Fue escrito y grabado mientras Cyrus estaba de viaje en 2009 por la gira Wonder World Tour. Los productores del álbum incluyeron a Antonina Armato, Tim James y John Shanks, quienes han colaborado con Cyrus por mucho tiempo. Musicalmente, Can’t Be Tamed incluye desde baladas acústicas hasta canciones dance-pop. Las pistas comparten el tema de liberarse de las limitaciones y expectativas. Es el último disco que Cyrus lanzó con Hollywood Records.

«Can’t Be Tamed» debutó en el top 10 en más de 15 países, entre ellos en el puesto número tres de la lista Billboard 200, convirtiéndose en su cuarto disco con su nombre en debutar en el top 10 de esa lista y noveno incluyendo los de Hannah Montana, en el puesto número uno en la lista Top 30 Álbumes de Portugal, en el puesto número uno en la lista Top 100 Álbumes de España, en el puesto número ocho en el The Official UK Charts Company y en el puesto número cuatro en la lista oficial de Alemania. Para junio de 2011, Can’t Be Tamed vendió a nivel internacional 1,5 millones de copias.

El sencillo que le da nombre al álbum, «Can’t Be Tamed», fue lanzado el 18 de mayo de 2010. Debutó en el número ocho de los Billboard Hot 100, dándole a Miley el quinto sencillo que alcanzó el top 10 en dicha lista, y número cinco también en Nueva Zelanda. El segundo sencillo, «Who Owns My Heart», fue lanzado el 26 de octubre de 2010. La promoción fue primariamente realizada mediante conciertos y apariciones en televisión en Europa con una gira llamada Gypsy Heart Tour, por la que realizó 21 conciertos por Latinoamérica, Australia y Asia, siendo la primera vez que la artista no visita su propio país en una gira.

Cyrus anunció que planeaba tomarse una pausa musical después de completar Can’t Be Tamed para explorar una variedad de géneros musicales y desarrollar un sonido de acuerdo a sus gustos. Cyrus aseguró que su música no la estaba inspirando y que esperaba que Can’t Be Tamed fuese esta vez sí su último álbum de música pop después de haber dicho que The Time of Our Lives lo sería. Cyrus también reveló que Can’t Be Tamed se influenciaba en Lady Gaga y poseía cualidades techno. Según Abbey Konowitch, jefe general de Hollywood Records: «Fue una progresión natural para ella» y comentó que el álbum tenía más dance-pop que lo planeado, pero que Cyrus se siente cómoda y también en términos de música contemporánea.

Cyrus creyó que el lanzamiento para el verano 2010 era el mejor. Es genial para escucharlo en el auto, dijo Cyrus. En Alemania fue lanzado el 18 de junio de 2010 y en Estados Unidos el 21 de junio de 2010. Se lanzó una edición estándar, con el CD de audio, y una edición de lujo con el CD y un DVD con el concierto de Cyrus en Londres, Inglaterra en el O2 Arena, con un rodaje nunca antes visto de su concierto que fue parte del Wonder World Tour.

Can’t Be Tamed fue grabado durante la gira por el mundo de Cyrus, en el Wonder World Tour, empezando en diciembre de 2009 en Londres. Cyrus se afilió con John Shanks, quien fue el anterior productor de «The Climb» de Hannah Montana: La Película.

Cyrus también trabajó con sus anteriores productores como Antonina Armato y Tim James, quienes trabajaron en los hits de Cyrus «See You Again» y «7 Things». El producto final resulta ser una variedad de ritmos de baile y sintetización, pero Cyrus creyó que el sonido era secundario a las letras personales en él.

En junio de 2013, Cyrus apareció en la portada de la revista Billboard para hablar sobre su nuevo álbum Bangerz. En la revista, comentó que se sentía «desconectada» de su álbum Can’t Be Tamed, y quería borrar toda su música vieja de iTunes, así mismo declaró que quiere «empezar como un nuevo artista», y considera que su álbum «Bangerz» es el primero de su carrera. Sin embargo, para su gira Bangerz Tour de 2014, Cyrus incluyó en el repertorio «Can’t Be Tamed», a pesar de sentirse «desconectada» del álbum al que pertenece.

En una entrevista con la revista Billboard Cyrus dijo que no tiene un proceso formal de composición sino que toma notas en su teléfono celular y lo guarda en su computadora. y que la música en el álbum es significativa para ella. Musicalmente, Cant Be Tamed incluye varios números de baile, muchos de los cuales dependen fuertemente del bajo. «Liberty Walk», co-escrita por Cyrus, Antonina Armato, Tim James, John Fasse, y Nick Scapa trata de alguien que encuentra el valor para dejar una relación abusiva. Cyrus, Armato, James, Paul Neumann y Marek Pompetzki compusieron «Can’t Be Tamed», la pista del título del álbum. Cyrus grabó una versión de Poison «Every Rose Has Its Thorn», de su álbum de 1988 Open Up and Say…Ahh!, después de oír a una multitud de personas cantándola. Consideró que es «un clásico» y una de sus canciones favoritas. Michaels dijo que la banda recibe numerosas solicitudes para versionar la canción y siempre está nervioso acerca de la concesión de permisos. Agregó que Cyrus era «uno de los pocos músicos que podría dar a ”Every Rose Has Its Thorn” su propia llamarada y hacer que suene bien». Miley concibió «Robot» en diciembre de 2009 en Londres, al viajar en el Wonder World Tour. Cyrus escribió la canción «My Heart Beats for Love» sobre su peluquero gay, uno de sus mejores amigos. Se trata de un intento de persuadir al público para no discriminar a los homosexuales y «estar abierta al mundo».

Para promover «Can’t Be Tamed», Hollywood Records se centró en la televisión en lugar de la radio, como resultado de las limitaciones de tiempo que rodeaban a Cyrus. Can’t Be Tamed se estrenó en vivo el 18 de mayo de 2010 en Dancing With the Stars.

En sus primeras apariciones en Europa, Cyrus realizó «Can’t Be Tamed», «Robot», y «My Heart Beats Four Love» en Rock in Rio en algunos conciertos en Lisboa, Portugal el 29 de mayo de 2010 y en Madrid, España el 6 de junio de 2010. Realizó un concierto que ofreció seis canciones del álbum en Los Ángeles en House of Blues el 21 de junio de 2010. El concierto fue grabado y transmitido en más de treinta sitios web propiedad de MTV Networks. Cyrus promovió Can’t Be Tamed en Britain’s Got Talent en Gran Bretaña, Good Morning America, The Late Show con David Letterman y como conductora de los MuchMusic Video Awards 2010. Cyrus cantó «Who Owns My Heart» en los MTV Europe Music Awards 2010 Madrid, España y en el programa Wetten, dass… en Alemania. La canción «Forgiveness and Love» fue promocionada con una presentación en los American Music Awards 2010 con la intención de ser el tercer sencillo del álbum.

Gypsy Heart Tour —en español: Corazón Gitano Tour— es la tercera gira de conciertos de la cantante estadounidense Miley Cyrus. Principalmente visitó América del Sur y Australia, promoviendo su tercer álbum de estudio,Can’t Be Tamed. Realizó paradas adicionales en México, Panamá y Costa Rica. La gira se inició el 29 de abril de 2011 en Quito, Ecuador y finalizó el 2 de julio de 2011 en Perth, Australia. Esta sería su primer gira por estos territorios. Cyrus sentía que en Estados Unidos no era muy bien recibida y pensaba que debía ir a lugares donde el amor de sus fans lleguen al concierto[cita requerida]. El tour fue catalogado como uno de los mejores del año 2011 por sus coreografías, por la calidad del espectáculo y por calidad vocal de Miley Cyrus.

«Gypsy Heart Tour es un sueño hecho realidad. No solo por todas las ciudades hermosas que llegaré a visitar sino también toda la gente hermosa que voy a conocer»

La gira fue anunciada por varios medios de comunicación el 21 de marzo de 2011, después de la aparición de Cyrus en Saturday Night Live. Las fechas iniciales de los conciertos fueron anunciados en América del Sur steel water glass. Las fechas en Australia, Filipinas, Costa Rica, Panamá y México poco después. Durante una entrevista con OK!, Cyrus mencionó que no presentaría su gira a Estados Unidos, debido a no sentirse cómoda para llevarla a cabo en el país ya que muchos medios de comunicación se metían a la vida personal de Cyrus. Ella comenta:

«Creo que ahora Estados Unidos se ha convertido en un lugar donde no sé si quieren que viaje o no, ahora sólo quiero ir a los lugares en los que estoy recibiendo más amor, Australia y América del Sur son muy especiales para mí. Soy una especie que le gusta ir a los lugares donde tengo más amor. No quiero ir a ningún sitio donde no me siento totalmente cómoda con él».

Miley Cyrus aseguró que la gira no sería igual que sus giras anteriores glass liter water bottle. Ella dice que su anterior gira, Wonder World Tour, se centró más en teatro y cambios de vestuario. La cantante quiere centrarse en la música y dejar que el público vea un lado diferente de ella que no es retratado en la televisión. Esta gira tendría su DVD al igual que todas las otras giras de Cyrus, pero fue cancelado tiempo después. Miley Cyrus, realizó su concierto en Brasil donde agregó canciones como «Stay» y realizó una modificación en el escenario que pasó de tener 2 pasarelas en cada costado a tener solamente una en el medio.

Su repertorio original estuvo conformado por veinte canciones, siendo 10 de Can’t Be Tamed. Entre ellas se incluyó a «Liberty Walk», «Can’t Be Tamed» y «Who Owns My Heart», y a algunos de los sencillos anteriores más exitosos de la artista, sobresaliendo «Party in the U.S.A.», «The Climb», «See You Again», «7 Things» y «Fly On The Wall». Este también incluyó algunos covers de algunos grupos de Rock como: «I Love Rock ‘N Roll», «Bad Reputation», «Every Rose Has Its Thorn», «Smells Like Teen Spirit» y «Landslide».

Por su parte buy goalkeeper gloves online, la audiencia también le dio una buena recepción, catalogándolo como una de las mejores giras del año 2011, agotando rápidamente algunas de sus entradas y llevándolo a recaudar US$28 000 000 con sus 21 espectáculos. Lo anterior le perfiló como la undécima gira más recaudadora del año 2011.

El álbum generó críticas de los expertos en su mayoría mixtas. Glenn Gamboa de Newsday, dijo que el principal fallo del disco es que suena confuso, que Cyrus es «difícil de resistir» en algunos temas, pero carecía de enfoque en otros, vagando a través de «Every Rose Has Its Thorn» y rapeando en «Liberty Walk», y a que «se le hizo difícil tomar en serio esas canciones». Comparó «Permanent December» con algunas canciones de Kesha, y además a «Robot» con las canciones de Britney Spears que son difíciles de resistir para bailar. Ed Masely de The Arizona Republic dijo: «El problema es que Miley no es una niña, pero tampoco una mujer, y parece un poco confundida en cuanto a la mejor manera en que podría trazar su camino en el público a través de los años». Además considera que las nuevas canciones son buenas por su nuevo sonido Electo-pop. Rob Sheffield de Rolling Stone, dijo que:

«Tras más de cuatro años de su carrera, Miley Cyrus es igual a otros ídolos adolescentes antes que ella […] Can’t Be Tamed fue hecho en su mayoría por los profesionales que ayudaron a hacer de Cyrus una princesa de Disney. Su disco está lleno de electro-pop y un estilo de Kelly Clarkson. La ira de Cyrus de 17 años de edad sin embargo es real, sólo añade sabor».

Algunos expertos criticaron el uso intensivo de la tecnología en el álbum. La página Prodigy dijo que:

«En general es un disco redondo, bien producido por John Shanks, conocido por su trabajo con Sheryl Crow, Celine Dion y Kelly Clarkson. Por momentos, el sonido del álbum recuerda a Britney Spears, Avril Lavigne y Christina Aguilera; pero, evidentemente, destaca el estilo electropop-dance de Miley. Can’t Be Tamed contiene temas para todos los gustos. Hay canciones para levantar el ánimo, otras para llorar, unas más para cantar y varias para bailar. Si eres fan del género pop, definitivamente este es un disco que no puedes dejar pasar.»

En los EE.UU., el álbum vendió 102.000 copias en la primera semana, debutando en el # 3 en el Billboard 200, detrás de Drake, con el álbum Thank Me Later, y Eminem, para su recuperación. A la semana siguiente vendió 33.000 copias, por lo que cayó al 9 # -. Una caída del 68% El 15 de julio, el álbum cayó dos posiciones más, ir a la # 11 con unas ventas de 28 miles de ejemplares. Hasta julio de 2013, vendió 346 000 copias en los Estados Unidos, donde se convirtió en el trabajo de menor éxito comercial de Cyrus.

También hay que tener en cuenta que Can’t Be Tamed está entre los discos más pirateados del 2010, es decir, es muy probable que si se sumasen las ventas oficiales con las piratas el número de millones de ventas sea aún mayor de lo que se conoce hasta el momento.

El álbum también incluye especiales características mejoradas que se pueden ver en un ordenador, denominado ”International Enhancement” en el álbum.

Can’t Be Tamed – Mini DVD es un álbum en vídeo, que fue lanzado en el Reino Unido y en Japón conjuntamente con el álbum Can’t Be Tamed. Incluye el vídeo musical de la canción del mismo nombre y el material extra de detrás de las escenas del la filmación del mismo. Además, el álbum contiene una entrevista con Cyrus, que fue filmada en Londres y algunas presentaciones correspondientes al DVD anterior Miley Cyrus: Live at The O2.


El álbum Can’t Be Tamed no recibió ninguna nominación para ceremonias de premiación, pero si los sencillos del álbum y el tour que se usó para promocionarlo. A continuación, una lista de las candidaturas que obtuvo los sencillos y el tour del álbum:

Fuente: z100.

Mansfield Park

tisdag, december 6th, 2016

Mansfield Park is the third published novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1814. The novel tells the story of Fanny Price starting when her overburdened family sends her at age 10 to live in the household of her wealthy aunt and uncle, through to her marriage.

The novel was first published by Thomas Egerton. A second edition was published in 1816 by John Murray, still within Austen’s lifetime. The novel did not receive any critical attention when it was initially published; the first particular notice was in 1821, in a positive review of each of the published novels by Jane Austen.

The critical reception from the late 20th century onward has been controversial. Paula Byrne, writing in the 21st century, found this to be one of Austen’s best novels, and called it pioneering for being about meritocracy. However, Mansfield Park is perhaps Austen’s most controversial novel due to its brief mention of the British slave trade, and the fact that Fanny’s uncle and benefactor, Sir Thomas, owns a plantation in the West Indies. Some critics characterize Thomas’s trip to Antigua as nothing more than an excuse for his long absence. The late Edward Said criticized the novel for failing to clearly criticize Sir Thomas’s profiteering in the West Indies.

Two notable film versions of the novel were released: Frances O’Connor starring in the lead role in the 1999 version co-starring Jonny Lee Miller and followed by Billie Piper starring in the 2007 version for ITV1 co-starring Blake Ritson.

Fanny Price, at age 10, is sent from her family home to live with her uncle and aunt in the country. It is a jolting change, from the elder sister of many, to the youngest at the estate of Sir Thomas Bertram, husband of her mother’s older sister. Her cousin Edmund finds her alone one day and helps her. She wants to write to her older brother William. Edmund provides the writing materials, the first kindness to her in this new family. Her cousins are Julia, age 12, Maria, age 13, Edmund, age 15 and Tom age 17. Her aunt is kind but her uncle frightens her with his authoritative demeanor. Fanny’s mother has another sister, Mrs Norris. She is the wife of the clergyman at Mansfield parsonage. Mrs Norris has no children and takes a great interest in her nieces and nephews. Mrs Norris keeps up a strict difference between her Bertram nieces and lowly Fanny. Sir Thomas helps the sons of the Price family find occupations as they are old enough. William joins the Navy as a midshipman not long after Fanny is at Mansfield Park. He visits them once before going to sea, and writes to his sister.

Five years after Fanny arrives, Aunt Norris is widowed and moves into a cottage of her own. Tom Bertram incurs a large debt. To pay the debt, Sir Thomas sells the living of the parsonage, freed up by the death of Uncle Norris, to clergyman Dr Grant.

When Fanny is 16, Sir Thomas leaves to deal with problems on his plantation in Antigua. He takes Tom along and trusts to Aunt Norris for the others. Mrs Norris takes on the task of finding a husband for Maria and finds James Rushworth, with income of ₤12,000 a year, but weak-willed and stupid. Maria accepts his marriage proposal, subject to Sir Thomas’s approval on his return. After a year in Antigua, Sir Thomas sends Tom home to Mansfield Park.

When Fanny is 17, the fashionable, wealthy, and worldly Henry Crawford and his sister, Mary Crawford, arrive at the parsonage to stay with Mrs Grant, their half-sister. The arrival of the Crawfords enlivens life in Mansfield and sparks romantic entanglements. Mary and Edmund begin to form an attachment. She is disappointed to learn that Edmund will be a clergyman.

Fanny fears that Mary’s charms and attractions have blinded Edmund to her flaws. On a visit to Mr Rushworth’s estate Sotherton, Henry deliberately plays with the affections of both Maria and Julia. Maria believes Henry is falling in love with her and treats Mr Rushworth dismissively, provoking his jealousy. Fanny observes this while Aunt Norris does not.

Encouraged by Tom and his friend Mr Yates, the young people decide to put on an amateur performance of the play Lovers’ Vows. Edmund objects, believing Sir Thomas would disapprove and feeling that the subject matter of the play is inappropriate for his sisters. Edmund reluctantly agrees to take on the role of Anhalt, the lover of the character played by Mary Crawford. The play provides a pretext for Henry and Maria to flirt in public. Fanny observes this, but again Aunt Norris, caught up in the excitement of staging a play, does not.

Sir Thomas arrives home earlier than expected, while all are in the midst of rehearsal. He stops the theatricals. Henry, from whom Maria had imminently expected a marriage proposal, instead takes his leave, and she is not pleased. She goes ahead with marriage to Rushworth, with her father’s permission. They honeymoon in Brighton and then settle in London, taking Julia with them. Fanny’s improved appearance and gentle disposition endear her to Sir Thomas. With Maria and Julia gone, Fanny and Mary Crawford visit often.

Henry returns to Mansfield parsonage, intending to make Fanny fall in love with him. He does not succeed. To further his suit, he uses his family connections to help Fanny’s brother William gain promotion as a naval lieutenant, to her great joy and gratitude. When Henry proposes marriage, Fanny rejects him out of hand. Sir Thomas is astonished at her refusal. He reproaches her for ingratitude, and encourages Henry to persevere.

To bring Fanny to her senses, Sir Thomas sends her for a visit to her parents in Portsmouth, hoping that the contrast will awaken her to the value of Henry’s offer. She sets off with William and sees him in his first berth as a commissioned officer. At Portsmouth, she develops a firm bond with her younger sister Susan, but is taken aback by the contrast between her dissolute surroundings — noise, chaos, unpalatable food, crude conversation, and filth everywhere — and the harmonious environment at Mansfield. Henry visits her there. Although Fanny still refuses him, her attitude begins to soften, particularly as Edmund and Mary seem to be moving toward an engagement.

Henry leaves for London, and shortly afterward, Fanny learns that scandal has enveloped him and Maria. The two meet at a party and rekindle their flirtation, which leads to an affair. An indiscreet servant makes the affair public, and the story is in the newspapers. Maria runs away with Henry. Mr Rushworth sues Maria for divorce, and the proud Bertram family is devastated. Tom has fallen gravely ill as a result of his dissolute lifestyle, and Julia, fearing her father’s anger for concealing Maria’s affair, has eloped with Tom’s friend Mr Yates.

Edmund takes Fanny and Susan to Mansfield Park. A repentant Sir Thomas realises that Fanny was right to reject Henry’s proposal and now regards her as his daughter. During an emotional meeting with Mary Crawford, Edmund discovers that Mary does not condemn Henry and Maria’s adultery, and regrets only that it was discovered. Her view is to cover it up. She blames Fanny for failing to accept Henry right away. Edmund is devastated to discover her true principles. He breaks off the relationship, returns to Mansfield Park.

Edmund slowly gets over his love for Mary. Then he comes to realise how important Fanny is to him. He declares his love for her, and they are married and eventually move to Mansfield parsonage, in the circle of those they love best. Tom recovers from his illness, a steadier and better man for it, and Julia’s husband, Mr Yates, proves to be a respectable husband. Henry Crawford refuses to marry Maria. Her shame gives her no options, so her father sets her up in a house with Aunt Norris, out of his sight. Mary Crawford moves in with her sister, hoping for a husband.

The world of the novel draws heavily upon the symbolic meaning of locations and events. The first critic to raise this aspect was Virginia Woolf.

For instance, the ha-ha in Sotherton Court is a boundary which some will cross, while others will not, thus indicating the future moral transgressions of Maria Bertram and Henry Crawford. Later on in the novel, the theatricals (based upon Lovers’ Vows) in which the company is involved at the request of Tom Bertram (with the exception of Fanny Price) is further indication of real life future behaviour.

The game of speculation has been viewed as a symbol by Penny Gay, who quotes David Selwyn saying the card game was a ”metaphor for the game Mary Crawford is playing, with Edmund as stake”.

The theme of country versus city symbolises that which is natural and life-renewing over against the artificial and corrupting effects of society. In the stargazing scene in Book I, the starlight symbolises one’s capacity to transcend selfish preoccupations and the suffering they cause, over against the candlelight, suggesting small-minded concerns. Another theme of the novel was need to uphold traditional English values and religion against the atheist values of the French Revolution. The character of Mary Crawford whose ”French” irreverence had caused her to cease attending church is unfavorably contrasted with Fanny Price’s ”English” sobriety and faith leads her to proclaim that church services should continue as ”It was a valuable part of former times. There is something in a chapel and chaplain so much in character with a great house, with one’s idea of what such a household should be!”. Austen presents the Church of England as a force for stability that holds together family, customs and English traditions in contrast to Crawford whose lack of interest in religion makes her an alien and disruptive force in the English countryside.

At least part of the novel may have been autobiographical. In 1802, the Reverend Harris Bigg Wither of the Church of England proposed marriage to Austen, which she declined. The reaction of her family is not known, but it is likely that her father who was anxious to get his daughter married off so that he would cease to have to support her would have one of great disapproval. In Mansfield Park, Sir Thomas Bertram harshly lectures Fanny Price for refusing the marriage proposal of Henry Crawford, telling her she was being disgracefully selfish in not marrying a man she did not love, but who would had brought great material advantages. In the novel ends with Price being vindicated in rejecting Crawford as supremely unsuitable husband material. Austen’s sister Cassandra Austen wanted the novel to end with Price marrying Crawford, and this dispute is one of the few known between the sisters. The English studies professor John Halperin also noted that Austen’s mother loved all of her novels except Mansfield Park, which he suggests may have been in part because of the similarities between Sir Thomas and her husband.

The story contains much social satire, targeted particularly at the two aunts. A major debate concerns whatever the character of Price is meant to be ironical, a parody of the wholesome heroines that were so popular in Regency novels. William H. Magee wrote in 1966 that ”irony pervades if (it) does not dominate the presentation of Fanny Price.” By contrast, Andrew Wright argued in 1968 that Price ”is presented straight-forwardly, without any contradiction of any kind”. Lionel Trilling maintained that Austen created Price as ”irony directed against irony itself”. By contrast, the American English professor Nina Auerbach argued that Price was a genteel version of the a popular archetype of the Romantic age; the monster who by the sheer act of existing does not and cannot ever fit into society. In Auebrach’s interpretation of Price, she has more in common with the monster created by Victor Frankenstein in Mary Shelly’s novel Frankenstein than she does with any of the other Austen heroines or the brooding character Hamlet, who was very popular with Romantic audiences. Auerbrach wrote that about that there is ”…something horrible about her that deprives the imagination of its appetite for ordinary life and compels it toward the deformed, the dispossessed.” Auerbach argues that Price defines herself in a negative sense, by refusing to involve herself in anything enjoyable or pleasant such as not acting in the play Lovers’ Vows or eating food only because she has to (and even then eating induces only nausea in her) a stern, priggish woman who watches the world around her in silent disapproval, a character who sums herself up in the line: ”Madam, I know not seems”. Auerbach sums Price ”As a woman who belongs only where she is not, Fanny is a more indigestible figure than the wistful Victorian orphans for whom embracing their kin is a secular salvation. In the tenacity with which she adheres to an identity validated by no family, home, or love, she repudiates the vulnerability of the waif to the unlovable toughness of the authentic transplant. Repelling the conventional female endowments of love and home, Fanny passes from the isolation of the outcast to that of the conqueror, aligning her rather with the Romantic hero than with the heroine of romance: her solitude is her condition, not a state from which the comedy will save her….The mobility and malleability of Mansfield Park is a dark realization of an essentially Romantic vision, of which Fanny Price represents both the horror and the best hope. Only in Mansfield Park does Jane Austen force us to experience the discomfort of a Romantic universe presided over by the potent charm of a heroine who was not made to be loved.”

Marking 200 years after this novel was published, Paula Byrne, author of a biography of Jane Austen, wrote a perspective on it, a novel she loves, while aware that Mansfield Park is not generally viewed as she sees it. The subtitle to Byrne’s article was ”Ignore its uptight reputation – Mansfield Park, published 200 years ago this month, seethes with sex and explores England’s murkiest corners”. The title of the novel and the family estate may well reflect Lord Mansfield, whose decision as Lord Chief Justice in a court case led to the end of slavery in Britain itself, and the name of Aunt Norris may be drawn from Robert Norris, the opposite of the judge, as Norris was ”an infamous slave trader and a byword for pro-slavery sympathies.” Sir Thomas Bertram’s home, Mansfield Park, was ”a newly built property, a house erected on the proceeds of the British slave trade.” It is not an old structure like the one belonging to Rushworth, or the estate homes described in other of Austen’s novels, like Pemberley in Pride and Prejudice or Domwell Abbey in Emma. Byrne finds this novel bold in its humour, containing ”Austen’s filthiest joke, when she makes a pun about sodomy in the Navy: “My home at my uncle’s brought me acquainted with a circle of admirals. Of Rears and Vices, I saw enough. Now, do not be suspecting me of a pun, I entreat.”” She posits that the heroine Fanny Price is ”the filter through which we view the mesmerising Crawfords”, the Londoners who bring their lively, seductive ways to the countryside. She finds this novel to be ”pioneering because it is a novel about meritocracy.” The novel is an exploration of the role of parents in raising their children and forming their moral characters, as shown by Sir Thomas in his changing view of his niece: he first feels that she is not on the same level as his daughters, but at the end, he acknowledges her advantages in starting from hardship in her parents’ home, recognizing his failings in guiding his own daughters. ”At the centre of the book is a displaced child with an unshakeable conscience. A true heroine.”

In the novel (Chapter 21), the slave trade is briefly mentioned as a failed topic of conversation upon the return of Sir Thomas Bertram to his home and family. Austen does not mention the Slave Trade Act 1807, which abolished the slave trade, though not slavery, in the British Empire. The Act passed four years before she started the novel and was the culmination of a long campaign by abolitionists, notably William Wilberforce. Slavery was not abolished in the British Empire until 1833.

The American literary critic Edward Said discussed the novel in his 1993 book Culture and Imperialism. Said was relentless in his attacks against Austen, depicting her as a racist and supporter of slavery whose books should be condemned rather than celebrated. Said’s thesis that Austen wrote Mansfield Park to glorify slavery is a popular one with the editor of a Penguin edition of Mansfield Park writing in the introduction that Said had established Mansfield Park “as part of the structure of an expanding imperialist venture”. At another point, however, Said seems to have acknowledged that Jane Austen disapproved of slavery:

”All the evidence says that even the most routine aspects of holding slaves on a West Indian sugar plantation were cruel stuff. And everything we know about Jane Austen and her values is at odds with the cruelty of slavery. Fanny Price reminds her cousin that after asking Sir Thomas about the slave trade, ”there was such a dead silence” as to suggest that one world could not be connected with the other since there simply is no common language for both. That is true.”

Gabrielle White criticised Said’s condemnation of Jane Austen and western culture, maintaining that Austen and other writers, including Samuel Johnson and Edmund Burke, opposed slavery and helped make its eventual abolition possible.[citation needed]

Claire Tomalin, following literary critic Brian Southam, claims that Fanny, usually so timid, questions her uncle about the slave trade and receives no answer, suggesting that her vision of the trade’s immorality is clearer than his. However, Ellen Moody has challenged Southam’s interpretation, arguing that Fanny’s uncle would not have been ”pleased” (as the text suggests) to be questioned on the subject if Southam’s reading of the scene were correct. Windschuttle in an article criticizing Said’s thesis wrote: “The idea that, because Jane Austen presents one plantation-owning character, of whom heroine, plot and author all plainly disapprove, she thereby becomes a handmaiden of imperialism and slavery, is to misunderstand both the novel and the biography of its author, who was an ardent opponent of the slave trade”. Likewise, the British author Ibn Warraq accused Said of a “most egregious misreading” of Mansfield Park and condemned him for a “lazy and unwarranted reading of Jane Austen”, arguing that Said had completely distorted Mansfield Park to give Austen views that she did not hold to score political points. Warraq argued that because Said was attempting to prove in Culture and Imperialism that Western civilization was rotten to the core and that all Westerners had always been evil, racist imperialists from the beginning of the West right up to the present that he was prejudiced against Austen in a way that was totally unfair and lacked even a “coherent thesis” against Austen.

While Mansfield Park was ignored by reviewers at first publication, it was a great success with the public. The first printing ”sold out within six months” and in 1816 she had a second printing which also sold out. Austen’s earnings on this novel were larger than for any of her other novels published in her lifetime. This novel received its first positive critical review in 1821, in a review of all of Jane Austen’s published novels by Richard Whately, who specifically noted the character of Fanny Price. Regency critics praised the novel’s wholesome morality; Jane Austen’s mother thought Fanny ”insipid”, though other unpublished private reviewers liked the character steel water glass, as Jane Austen collected comments by those in her social circle about Fanny Price.

In the late 20th century, Mansfield Park raised controversy among reviewers. In 1974, the American literacy critic Joel Weinsheimer wrote that Mansfield Park was of all the Austen novels ”…perhaps the most profound; certainly it is the most problematic”. Many modern readers find it difficult to sympathise with Fanny’s timidity and her disapproval of the theatricals difficult, finding her ”priggish, passive, naive and hard to like.” They reject the idea made explicit in the final chapter that she is a better person for the relative privations of her childhood. Other critics point out that she is a complex personality, perceptive yet given to wishful thinking, and that she shows courage and grows in self-esteem during the latter part of the story. Austen biographer Claire Tomalin, who is generally critical of Fanny, argues that ”it is in rejecting obedience in favour of the higher dictate of remaining true to her own conscience that Fanny rises to her moment of heroism mexican lime squeezer.” But Tomalin reflects the ambivalence that many readers feel towards Fanny when she also writes: ”More is made of Fanny Price’s faith, which gives her the courage to resist what she thinks is wrong; it also makes her intolerant of sinners, whom she is ready to cast aside.”[citation needed]

Margaret Kirkham in her essay titled ”Feminist Irony and the Priceless Heroine of Mansfield Park” has commented directly on the positions of both Rousseau and Wollstonecraft regarding the type of feminism Austen explores in the depiction of Fanny Price. For Kirkham, these two views are highly contrasting with Rousseau portraying the role of women as limited by ”feminine” frailties which, counter-intuitively, Rousseau encourages women to exaggerate in order to affectionately manipulate their effect on men as he states in his book Emile: ”So far from being ashamed of their weakness, they glory in it; their tender muscles make no resistance; they affect to be incapable of lifting the smallest burdens, and would blush to be thought robust and strong.”[page needed] Wollstonecraft for her part agreed with Austen’s perspective contrary to both Rousseau and his followers in this regard such as Fordyce whom Kirkham criticizes stating: ”I know not any comment that can be made seriously on this curious passage (from Fordyce and Rousseau), and I could produce many similar ones; and some so very sentimental, that I have heard rational men used the word indecent when they mentioned them with disgust.” Kirkham, siding with Austen, was critical of the ”feminine” frailties school represented by Rousseau and Fordyce.[page needed]


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